The “Nature and Importance” of Technical Communication

In the article, “The Technical Communicator as Author” authors  (Slack, J.D., Miller, D., and Doak, S.) proposed that technical communicators should claim their role as author. As a Physical Education major transitioning into Graphic Design, technical communication is a must. The Graphic Design field is considered a subset of visual communication and communication design, but sometimes the term “graphic design” is used interchangeably with these due to overlapping skills involved. The authors also go into depth explaining the three views of communication (transmission, translation, and articulation). They argue that viewing communication as articulation gives us a better understanding on how things work and how to make them better.

ICT

This picture links to the video “Teaching and Importance of Technical Communication,” by Professor K. Muralidhar.

For the transmission view, it is the writer’s goal to transmit the message from its source to the reader.  In translation view, the author is just that, the translator. The writer’s goal is to take what an engineer or scientist or whoever says, understand it, and then convert it into a message that an everyday reader would understand. Finally, in the articulation view, the writer’s goal is to articulate the message so that it is timeless in a sense.

My Favorite quote from the article:  “The Technical Communicator as Author“.

The articulation view allows us to move beyond a conception of communication as the polar contributions of sender and receiver to a conception of an ongoing process of articulation constituted in (and constituting) the relations of meaning an power operating in the entire context with which messages move.” (pp.89)

The quote above stood out the most because the articulation view of communication breaks down information so the reader better understand it. Like technical communicator, Graphic designer also adapt an articulation view. Graphic designers convey inspiring and informative ideas in advertisements, brochures, and other marketing materials.  The strong meaning of graphic stimulates a person to reach for the product or feels drawn to it or immediately decide its an inferior product and has no use for it. Below is a video that explains “What is Technical Communication”.

Technical communication is a broad field and includes any form of communication that exhibits one or more of the following characteristics: Communicating about technical or specialized topics, such as computer applications, medical procedures, or environmental regulations. Communicating by using technology, such as web pages, help files, or social media sites. Providing instructions about how to do something, regardless of how technical the task is or even if technology is used to create or distribute that communication.

 

Shifting Realities: TIme for A Reality Check

In the text, Virtual Realities: Transitions from University to Workplace Writing, the issue that occurred in the changeover were the effectiveness of what potential academic professionals and non-academic professionals bring forth to the workplace. Because technology is ever-changing, the modern learner style of learning is colliding with new realities in the learners’ job, academic and professional writing skills. Being flexible in where and how they learn is becoming important. While coming straight out of college into the workplace, the student who is now a new employee wants to learn from their peers and bosses as much as from the experts or professionals.

“Research into transitions to the workplace has made it clear that developing competence in workplace writing requires much more than learning the formal features of the particular workplace genres .” -Anson and Forsberg

With this approach you will be taking control over your own development.   Dias, Freedman, Medway and Pare used the terms attenuated authentic participation, facilitated performance and legitimate peripheral participation to break down the concept of how learning is evolved and transmitted to the experienced company. These philosophers advocate that the way a student writes inside and outside the classroom is imperative to the way they learn. They insist with the theory that you must get experience outside the classroom in order to be flexible with the writing transition to the workplace style. This educational transition grid is supposed to capture the issues of the virtual reality of what is occurring in the workplace.

In the video below, Madhukar Shukla explains his theory of the significance of learning outside the classroom and the beneficial factor that every student should be given the opportunity to explore outside the traditional setting for better preparation.

 

Shukla argues that 75 percent of learning happens outside the classroom. I agree with this statement because majority of learning is experiential. As college students, we will only be better prepared for the workplace if we are given hands on, face-to-face outside the classroom encounters. Even by allowing guest speakers to come into the classroom will be more helpful because it’s an outside element coming in to bring advice. By advocating this, students are more likely to come across new ideas and they could potentially become more socially aware. Applying social media with this generations new technology, the traditional learning style and techné are becoming less important and there’s almost no need for it any more. This video is substantial because he explains how technology is ever changing and it’s up to the teachers, the educators to remain in the loop so they are able to expose better transitional information to the up and coming.

In English 335: Issues in Professional Writing, we incorporate our scholastic “knowing” into the professional writing. With a course like this one here, as a student, the teaching and writing that is done throughout the semester has prepared me for the professional field of law. Every writing assignment that is given enables we, the students, to manipulate when and how we choose to portray our writing; academically or professionally. As collegiate students, we learn to write professionally by knowing, doing and making. Using the rhetorical reference of knowing, doing and making I will explain just how deliberate and conscious this participation happened.

As a student in English 335 course we have to know; know what the issues are in professional writing. Not any professional writing but the area of struggle or “professional issue” in our career fields. We must research and understand the pertinence of the issue. Identifying and self-educating is the first step. Then, we must act on combining our academic writing and potential careers into a logical setup for our pathos. As students, our professor instructs us to build a blog post that demonstrates our learning process; which is our facilitated performance. We all watch and learn from each other by this collaborative blog by giving and receiving comments, suggestions and classroom workshops. Lastly, the making portion, after establishing the problem and taking action we put all of it together and make our logos. Each student will engage in their post and re-work their post to better persuade their audience. Using constructive criticism and feedback from fellow classmates and the professor we are now in the stage of legitimate peripheral participation. We are in a reality of co-producing and practicing at a professional level.

During my fall semester of 2013, I was enrolled in a legal studies course. Prior to signing up for the class, off of the name basis, I automatically thought the course would be consumed with Political Science or Pre-Law intuitive but this course turned out to be one of the English curriculum. This subject actually dealt more with writing, analytical and critical thinking activities; which is what my future professional career of obtaining a JD consisted of. The directness of each assignment was skill based of writing concisely, straight-forward and effective. I found the assignments especially helpful because it allowed me to practice and configure more assets that will benefit me going forth to law school and it gave me more insight of what I should expect. The course work allowed me to improve my skills in reading comprehension, logical reasoning, and analytical reasoning, develop well-reasoned arguments, Prepare effective personal statements for law school applications and examine and compare law schools and specializations within the legal field.  There was a workshop also that was required to be taken with this course and it was a LSAT prep guide. We were required to take timed pre-tests and it helped us focus on preparing for a career in law.

With rapid changes in businesses, organizations and careers, this is making everyone want to learn more. Employers are looking for new hires that are different and are offering a new exclusivity than they once were before.  They’re seeking to hire someone that’s outside the element of traditional training and cookie cutter made. Technology and new age media is making everything more competitive and it’s starting to become expected that you can adjust and adapt writing styles when leaving the university setting and entering your professional field.

As a professional, the language and writing discourse varies; allowing academic and nonacademic employees to interact on the same level, educationally speaking. In terms of professional ethos, depending on your profession, there will be a variety of ways to communicate with colleagues while using your professional ethos. The dilemma at hand is solution that could assist with an easier and proactive transition from the university to the workplace. The types of writing that I have encountered at the university level were more problematic versus hypothetical. This essay argued that school-based writings should relate to one’s potential career and it should also be followed by an extensive learning or professional-prep training.

This is what transitioning from the university to the workplace is about; using academic settings to exude an adequate learning process. In both semesters, both courses focused on fundamentally building strengths in the student’s professional genre. I believe that every university in this modern time should offer or make it imperative that students are engaging and preparing for the ‘leap of faith’ or as what the article refers to as the transition from the university to the workplace. These two courses alone that I have taken have helped me tremendously as far as gains into a better preparedness for the next line of work. The issues of professional writing starts within the university. This will be in my opinion the easiest way to alleviate the problems that are in the means of the transition. The time to learn how to make the switch are outside the classroom and this transition will only keep changing in the future.

 

Blogging Out of Bonds: Professional Writing as the “Trickster”

I would like to discuss Elizabeth Martinez’s What is White Supremacy?bound_hands in relation to Cezar M. Ornatowski’s Between Efficiency and Politics: Rhetoric and Ethics in Technical Writing and the relationship the two articles share in the acknowledgement of a system that subdues writing and language. All around us we see the by-products, particularly in writing and language, of those who have conformed to a writing style that suits white supremacy. In his discussion about the education of technical writing students, Ornatowski would call this objective, neutral, plain, and clear approach to writing as one of the two contradictions students are schooled in (175). I want to expand on his observation and argue that it applies to all writing and language because it is a tool of colonial thinking. Malea Powell confirms the thought that the “Academy” is an institution established on “Western European ideas and values” (3). The way in which we alter our language to appease the oppressor has resulted in a persistently censored culture in which the truth is hidden and we are either afraid or don’t know how to express ourselves in our writing and language. I suggest we incorporate a trickster rhetorics approach, a way of survivance, to use what we know about language and the structure of colonial thought as a way to fight back.

To further elaborate on what each article touches on, Martinez discusses the infrastructure of white supremacy and its beginnings as a tool of colonization in America. An issue that I find has continued to breed generation after generation in the American education system, the proof lying in all of the textbooks and lesson plans that congratulate Christopher Columbus on a job well done.This system that has successfully lied to us about our country’s past is the same structure that subconsciously subdues our own writing. Ornatowski tackles the issue of the education of technical writers, and how it hasn’t prepared them for the workplace environment. He acknowledges a truth: technical writers will be serving the goals of their company who expect them to be “efficient” and “useful”; they are serving a system bigger than themselves and decisions must be made in their writing that reflects such. Below is a quote from Ornatowski’s article and his earnest description of what corporate America essentially is:

The dominate purpose of such organizations is the maximization of advantage and increased control of resources in the major operative sphere: economic political, intellectual. It is the maximization of the symbolic of real “capital” (180).

Ornatowski warns that if writers aren’t capable of some “rhetorical saavy,” and persist to write in way that is neutral, clear, objective, and plain, they won’t ever make it in the demanding corporate world that is a “complex game of trade-offs and judgment calls” (176). Essentially, a writer has to have some fluidity. The writer has to play the system to win. Yes– white supremacy has structured our writing so that we have come to accept  we use a neutral and passive voice to get ahead, but the sooner we acknowledge this fact, the sooner we can move towards playing the system at its own game.

trickster-21Next, I am going to propose using the concept of trickster rhetorics, originally coined by Gerald Vizenor, as a way to work against the system while revealing its mistakes. Malea Powell writes, “Trickster discourse is deflative. It exposes the lies we tell ourselves and, at the same time, exposes the necessity of those lies to our daily material existence” (9). Trickster rhetorics is a way of survival; a way to make sure that our real voices are heard. Ornatowski conducts an experiment with a test engineer named Stephen, and Stephen uses his own form of trickster rhetorics in the professional world of technical writing. He says he reports with “selective emphasis” (177-178) Ornatowski considers Stephen a good organizational writer. He is someone who can “negotiate successfully the boundary between” using formal devices of clear, objective, and neutral language, while also incorporating institutional, political, and situational demands into their writing (178). A balance and negotiation is needed between keeping true to our message and understanding the colonial framework.

As students I think we have become prey to a system that tells us what we can or cannot write.Unless encouraged, we often do not take the liberties to attack issues of race, gender, sexuality, and many other political issues. Why? Because of a colonial frame of mind that has taught us to write in passive and objective ways; it has taught us to be scared of our superiors and audience in fear of approaching something in an unethical way. Just the other day I heard a professor of mine ask a fellow English major why didn’t he attack his thesis as he would the topic in a class discussion. He replied that he’s been taught to be careful of what he writes and that it might offend someone. While it’s a valid reason most students may share in their experiences with writing, it’s amazing that this is just another result of a system designed to produce desired results.  We are victims of this colonized form of thinking.

Martinez puts the issue of white supremacy in perspective for us, just as Ornatowski puts it in perspective that technical writers must break out of their assuming roles (clear, objective, and effective) and incur the rhetorical saavy required to manipulate both the desire of the corporate world and the hard facts. Malea Powell’s understanding of trickster rhetorics is a way to keep our identity in a world that wants to strip the color away. As argued earlier, all writers, not only technical writers, are faced with the historical models set up by white supremacy. Not only have we inherited a passive way of writing, but we are also subconsciously afraid to speak our minds. Thus, leaving our writing and our language censored.

My argument is to not only point out how the system has suppressed the writing of students and employees, but to also incite change in how we can fight back against the system in both the scholastic and professional world using ideas from Ornatowski and Powell. Below is a video in which Malea Powell touches on the importance of rhetorics and writing in the real world; change is possible through our writing!

Writing Context in the Healthcare Professions: Social, Textual and Individual Perspectives

Does how we write in the workplace matter? Nonacademic Writing : The Social Perspective by Lester Faigley (Professional Writing and Rhetoric pp. 47-59).  discusses how the job-related writing is worthy of our interest. Faigley talks about the three major theoretical perspectives– the textual perspective, the individual perspective and the social perspective and how it might contribute to research in nonacademic writing (pp. 47.)   As an Licensed Practical Nurse, I am always documenting in the patient’s chart. Here is an example: Patient states, ” I am tired of being here, I am ready to go home!” MD notified of Pt’s concerns, writer will continue to monitor. In nursing we use a lot of abbreviations, which are approved  by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations.  Also, there are some abbreviations we do not use, and these abbreviations keep the nurse professional out of the court system. Here is a video on nursing errors.

This video cites how documentation by nurses failed the patient and how to avoid the pitfalls of documentation.

Faigley states, ” They (the researcher) might look at errors in the nurse’s writing and measure “improvement” (p. 49). How can the nursing staff improve on their charting? This video is about  different methods of how the nursing staff can avoid charting errors.

Nursing documentation needs to be clear and concise.  Faigley states, ” The primary attention shifts away from the text to an individual writer’s emerging conception of the writing task ” (p. 49). It is about how we write or how we make certain choices when we write. In nursing documentation the nurse is always updating notes in the patient’s chart.  As an LPN,  my charting is part of my job and I get paid to do just that. If I don’t chart on a patient every two hours, what are the consequences of my decision? Who do I answer to?  Am I neglecting my patients? I may link my communication from  the to the physician, to the lab  and back from the lab to the physician. When we write in a social perspective  it is a broad view of how we write as a community.  An example would be how we Facebook and Twitter. It is about what we are writing, how we are writing, who has access to it, who read it and  who does not reads it. For example, there is a new app similar to Instagram that is now available to healthcare professionals.

Listen to the different topics regarding healthcare professionals

Listen to the different topics regarding healthcare professionals.

Empirical  Research relates  to nursing. Here is an example: hand washing is a must in healthcare. One staff person is chosen to observe the hand washing technique of all employees on  the unit. After the staff person finishes his observation, a percentage is  made of the number of people who washed their hands vs the number of people who did not wash their hands during patient care. We strive for 100% and we get it. Once we got 98% and it wasn’t because of the nurses. I would use the qualitative approach when I gather information from my patient and ask him open-ended questions to find out exactly what is go on with him.  A quantitative approach would be when JCAHO  visits the hospital  to make sure  the healthcare professionals all following policies and  procedures to keep the hospital accredited. In my field of Nursing, I can relate to Faigley’s  three major theoretical perspectives in my work place. I compose my thoughts and I write in the patient’s chart, then I compose and revise and revise again in the patient’s chart. Lastly, I follow  policies and procedures to help keep the hospital accredited. The video was about the pitfalls of nursing documentation; the charting should be clear and concise, lots of revisions and what happens when a nurse makes an error? When a nurse makes an error, she hurts the patient, she hurts the hospital accreditation and she hurts herself. She could  lose her license to practice as an nurse. Nonacademic writing in the work place matters to all of us! MOREOVER, WRITING IN THE HEALTHCARE WORKPLACE MATTERS EVEN MORE BECAUSE IT’S LIFE OR DEATH.  If a nurse over medicates a patient, because she was following the physician’s order and the patient dies. The nurse will lose her license and she could possibly be charged with murder or manslaughter.  We all are responsible for how we write in the work place and there are consequences for the wrong actions!

 

 

What’s all the rush about?

  The Division of Labor or Integrated Teams: A Crux in the Management of Technical Communication by MJ Killingsworth, BG Jones

There will always be theorist available to hypothesize the many ways that make things better or worse for us. The managing of communication in organizations has been labeled as managerial. In reality, some businesses can not function as well in an environment that is strictly managerial or too regulatory. This causes mistakes in the workplace from being rushed by the bosses and not having adequate time to get the job done properly.  According to historical perspectives such as Max Weber, it would be more productive to use the linear process as compared to the recursive process. You can watch this quick 2 minute video to get a better idea of Max Weber. 

Max_Weber_by_PingChoots

Iron cage is a sociology term coined by Weber, relating to his views on bureaucracy and rationalization.

workers2

Women from the 1940’s at work

In his opinion , there were specific principles to be used when analyzing a work pattern. One theory, as stated by Weber, elaborated on his opinion about the organizational process of workers. He stated “The decisive reason for the advance of bureaucratic organization has always been its purely technical superiority over any other form of organization” (p 973). What his theorist ideas say to me is that; he believed managers should be strict on their subordinates and compared workers to machines. When people are preparing for work they do not expect to be treated as an assembly line worker unless they work at a factory of course. The following picture shows an example of the linear process and links to women from the 1940’s              .

Many of these ideas have spilled into the healthcare industry, I can attest to this from my experience as a licensed practical nurse. I have come to learn that the quality of patient care is dwindling away. There are too many incidents that reflect this fact; especially when relating it to the administration of medication. This happens everyday in all healthcare settings around the country. The most neglected individuals are patients living in nursing homes. This is where the LPN makes the most money, usually because miracles are expected of them. Miracles such as passing loads of medications to umpteen patients and doing so in a short period; there is not enough time in the day for complete proper documentation.

How would you feel if you knew your loved one was not receiving proper treatment all because of their care taker being rushed?! Where the problem lies is in communication and documentation is the key. State laws require each institute to provide their workers with a certain time limit allowed during med pass. Many times the documentation is sloppy, too short-handed, and incomplete. After reading this article: “The Division of Labor or Integrated Teams” (by Killingsworth and Jones) pp 321-339, I was able to understand the historical perspectives that discussed how the “scientific management” process is introduced early on. Frederick Taylor was a famous theorist who promoted this labor of quantity instead of quality, also called “Taylorism“. Below is a short, but good informative clip of his ideology: 

According to the text, Frederick Taylor applied the scientific method to study the optimal way to do any type of workplace task. Taylor stated the following: “Work should be selected scientifically through rigorous testing, effectiveness should be objectively measured, managers are planers, and workers are doers” (by Killingsworth and Jones) p 322.  He found that by calculating the time needed for the various elements of a task, he could develop the best way to complete that task. This caused people in management positions to mandate more of an organized process where workers had their tasks assigned to them individually.

This “scientific management” method was used in a way that made workers complete their work in a more timely manner. Taylor felt as though uneducated people would not know any better, and he proceeded to use a scientific method while watching the workers and making sure there wasn’t any waste of time. For example, when people are working on a job, they do things such as singing to allow time to pass by quicker, making a more enjoyable environment. Unlike the theorist beliefs, work is actually more productive when using techniques that promote a happier environment. Here is a video showing workers at Google and how they promote a happy environment: 

Along with Weber, Taylor’s theory has also spilled into the healthcare industry, causing an atmosphere of being understaffed.  Well, when you rush or force a nurse to pass medications within a certain time mistakes can be made, even purposely. For ex: eye drops have to be given in increments over a 45 minute period, but during that time the nurse has already moved on to the next patient and is likely to forget to return, or even rush and instill all three drops at once! The medication is not effective when not given properly. So, your grandma who has glaucoma just missed her eye drops, and risks falling because her vision is now even more impaired. This is not “efficient”, but rather damaging for the patient who may be you one day. Here is a list of reasons nurses make mistakes from being rushed! 

These problems of rushing clearly relates to the mis-documentation of patients’ charts. A nurse who in not paying full attention just may miss a simple documentation such as an allergy. I agree it is important to have a time line to abide by, because when taking medications you usually only have a two hour time frame within the prescription time. The biggest problem is being understaffed. CNA’s usually know their patients better than the doctor’s because of the time they spend with them. Most healthcare settings hire more CNA’s then LPN.’s because they save money. The local hospital in my city does not hire LPN’s because they know they can have the RN’s pass the medications, which works the CNA’s even harder. Because as every nurse knows, RN’s do not like getting their hands dirty for the most part.

This particular issue of education is not only seen in the healthcare field; because professional writers such as engineers, also experience issues when planning documentation. After surveys were administered to a variety of companies, by Killingswoth and Jones, they found that “The occasional defensiveness about qualifications demonstrates a perceived need for credentials, even if that need is self-imposed” p 333.

The more education, the higher the pay, the more easy laid back job you will have in the nursing world. Just as Taylorism demonstrated when hired as a steel consultant by Henry Ford; where he recommended that there be no wasting of time, the workers on the assembly line must do what their told.  Nurses, such as LPN.’s at nursing homes, have no time to waste. There are five rights one must follow when passing meds, including documentation. If a nurse is assigned 45 patients, and given two hours or less to pass all of the meds, this is actually a mission impossible. Nurses complain all the time about being understaffed, and by the time new staff is hired, nurses have quit from being over worked. Taylorism’s “scientific managementmethod may be useful when engineers are writing a manual; but it is definitely not that useful in the healthcare setting. 

Therefore, when discussing topics related to work ethic; the facts of time management and teamwork are important to discuss. Although, previous theorist have described the scientific management method to be the most productive; this does not mean it’s always going to be the best choice. People can relate to their duties at work better if they have an understanding with each other, and collaborate ideas to make a better and more beneficial work environment. Since I am a nurse, I am able to see the time management skills according to a healthcare setting. The author, Killingsworth described the reasons it is so important for people to realize how a teamwork can be beneficial for a company. Practicing these skills will decline patient errors and make a more happy and healthy environment.

Busted! Hyperlinks and Automated Job Hiring

As a criminal justice major and as a former HR manager, I found the article by Johndan Eilola and Stuart Selber, “After Automation: Hypertext and Corporate Structures,” to be quite interesting because hypertext and hyperlinks when using googling an individual it could hinder someone for a job opportunity, rather they were falsely accused or it was something that may occurred 6 or 7 years ago. Rhetoric and today’s writing greatly involve hypertext. Hypertext is a term used to describe text displayed on computer screens and any other electronic devices that have references (hyperlinks) to other text that the reader can access immediately.

Please take a look at this quick clip and get a clear understanding of the history behind hypertext. I find it very informative.  For example, it goes and explains how technology changed overtime. The inventors felt as if hypertext would help world peace through a global share of knowledge. 

Hypertext Pioneers

Look at how technology has changed over the years, now thanks to our hypertext pioneers navigating through the world wide web with hypertext has definitely helped the world as a whole.

Some hypertext exposes the intellectual and social revolutionary potential of the devise or medium, but specific hypertext just support relatively ranked social and textual relationships. Some original versions of hypertext include  Memex, Xanadu and Augment system or online system (NLS). Since hypertext is viewed as method of automating existing work patterns, they are restricted to contract vital processes of communication. As a previous Human Resource manager the restrictions of hypertext and processing the communication when researching my potential job seekers by the world wide web of google and searching who they are, and what professional name they have out there. Various types of hypertext, corporate structures, and technical communication are intertwined in complicated relationships. The commercial hypertext serve to automate and conserve the more traditional corporate structures and contract the range and significance of technical communication. The commercial hypertext establish valuable improvements over the old ways of working. However, the over reliance that is established by this automation of communication dis-empowers the users and technical communicators. The low value placed on reading and using technical documents in the automated view of hypertext carries much of the load for the parallel low status of the writers of such automated text. Generally, users who underutilized computers may devalue writing. For example, I had a employee who could not write a simple email in speaking in a professional manner, instead my employee would send emails by actual talk to text dialect. The importance of knowing the importance of knowing how to write professionally. Below is a picture that links to the NPR website where it goes in depth on how your background check can affect you in receiving employment for a potential job.

Listen to this background searches and professional writing situations.

This picture links to the NPR website where you can listen to how background checks can keep you from getting a job.

Some significant and powerful aspects of hypertext have been mostly left undeveloped or are limited to specific sites and users. A great amount of this underdevelopment is not due to isolated technology but due to emphasize on efficiency and short over long term profit and productivity in some forms of corporate and industrial cultures. These dynamics are not by themselves dis empowering or repressive, but they usually become so dominant that they overpower other concerns and actions. For example, I had a new applicant who applied for working in our cash office, when I looked up the applicants name he was previously charged with larceny over eight years ago, but with technology today these third party vendors will buy information to make a profit from us as people to have their information removed from these sites.

Automation from the Human resource perspective automation is the process of transitioning your burdensome, time-consuming paper-based HR processes such as payroll processing and benefits administration to a streamlined, computer-based online system. Much of HR automation is based on the concept of self-service. Self-service enables us managers and employees to perform HR-related functions on their own, at their convenience, from their computer desktops. For example, employee self-service enables an employee to view pay slips, manage benefits elections, sign up for direct deposit and update their personal information. Manager self-service allows a manager or designated staff person to perform tasks such as submitting salary and rate changes, and processing new hires or terminations. It also enables managers to create, track and manage a variety of employee attributes, such as salary, performance, competencies, absences and paid time off. There are two major methods of computerization in corporate sites: automating and informating. Automating technologies function to speed up the working pace by translating repetitive, predictable human activities such as turning pages into machine instructions.Informating technologies produce new information based on automated tasks. The informating technologies threaten the since they encourage decision making capabilities and skills to move outward from a central control. They encourage networked relationships rather than hierarchical relationships. Notably, the procedures software tool (PST), can automate and informate the process of writing procedures.

There are two opposing views in reading and writing: expansion and contraction. In the contraction view, technical communication is the process of information transfer from sender to receiver. For instance, I examine how employees’ political skill, personality traits, and creative performance, along with the situational variables of social support from managers and co-workers, the perceived level of routinization of the job itself, and levels of work-family conflict encourage or discourage job crafting by moderating the relationship between tendencies toward workaholism and expansion and contraction oriented job crafting. Communication in a contractive technology visually shrinks in size to make the gap between the sender and the receiver frictionless, noise free and invisible. Hence, communication technologies are designed to accelerate reception of information and the speed at which information moves from writer to reader. In the expansion view, writing and reading are modes of thinking with opposite meanings. Information transfer is less than a continual process of constructing and deconstructing. Hence, communication is a political and social process rather than automatic transfer of information packets.

As a prior human resource manager and criminal justice major, there are significant social relationships and tendencies that influence the shape of communication and communication process by hypertext in making a job connection when research is done on the applicant.  Concepts such as work environment, technology, readers and writers are exemplified in hypertext being produced and used in a corporate situation. Generally, hypertext has been edged in automating footings, having no reminders that the technology may be articulated in means that can support technical communication of a different type and toiling to expand rather than contract the process of communication. Try it out and see what you come up with, for once try googling your self and take a look at all the third party developers who have any information on you as an individual. Ask your self is this what you want a future employer to be able to have access too?

Orality is the New Black: How Conversation and Technology Influence Education

collegecomputer-95da5affc66cbfe8b76807ae748dfe628f430723-s400-c85 When I first read “Orality and Literacy in the Workplace: Process-And Text-Based Strategies for Multiple-Audience Adaptation” by Rachel Spilka I didn’t see how it applies because it’s uses the example of engineers. Since I am an education major and will be teaching middle school grades, it seemed somewhat foreign. Upon a closer read of the article, however, I can now see how this relates to education.

Spilka stated, “I use orality to refer to the process of transmitting ideas via any conversation or message between project participants that involves speech (e.g., electronic mail, written notes sent between writers and readers, or comments written in margins). Literacy refers to the process of transmitting ideas via any written materials used primarily in isolation rather than for conversational purposes- materials such as preliminary drafts, final products, source documents, outlines, and planning notes used by writers while working on subsequent drafts” (p.147).

Every school has its own style of communication; some use social media and some are more strict. The more strict schools will use meetings and conferences in order to discuss important announcements, while others will post their announcements on Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram. Instagram can help schools gain support from the community with the public recognition. For example, if the school is having a fundraiser and they need help getting the word out to the community, they can post their flyers on Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter! Students who attend the school or maybe not attend can re-post, (share-Facebook and re-tweet-Twitter), to all of their followers and friends and help support the school.

“Orality was the central means of analyzing multiple audiences. The more rhetorically successful writers were those who interacted with readers and other project participants throughout the composing process to update, revise, and make more accurate their initial impressions about their rhetorical situations (including audience needs, orientations, and preferences) and to expand their knowledge of social contexts characterizing these situations” (pp. 147-148).

Interacting with your audiences, (in my case, teachers, students, administrators, and the community), will make certain situations better and more clear. Orality as stated, is spoken or informal interaction such as e-mail.

instagram

Why schools should use Instagram

In order to be a successful teacher, I believe it is important to chose which ways are easier for your students to learn. Is it easier for your students to read all material needed for the class or will it be easier for them to engage with group discussion on how to have all materials and follow the rules. What is talked about (orality) is different from what is actually written (literacy).

You could prefer to have group discussions over reading because having a group discussion could possibly expand your knowledge of the text, and me personally, I would rather discuss it than reading it. Being an education major, it is essential to know the difference between orality and literacy. My style of teaching can determine how and what my students learn. Rather my students learn from just reading it, or learn it by engaging in discussion.